This paper aims to define the form and function of Old Japanese copular sentences containing the NP-da predicate. It is a commonly held that the Old Japanese copula was -n(i)ari, but the zero copula (-ø) was frequently used. This paper analyzes the syntactic structure “A-pa B-ø/-n(i)ari” as a small clause structure, and examines the functions of copular sentences. To this end, we organize the functions of copular sentences in Modern Japanese for comparison with the functions of copular sentences in Old Japanese. Furthermore, Old Japanese had a kakari musubi structure using a kakari particle -zo. In order to verify whether this kakari musubi structure was a copular sentence, we analyze the syntactic structure of (pseudo-) cleft sentences. After understanding the syntactic and functional property of copular sentences and (pseudo-)cleft sentences, we show that the kakari musubi structure “A-zo B” is not a copular sentence, but a cleft sentence similar to English it-clefts in which a marker -zo appears in the head of ForceP indicating a particular illocutionary force.