The Belt and Road initiative has been widely supported by the international community since it was put forward in Sept.-Oct. 2013 due to its conformity with the development trend of the international community and the strategic needs of the countries along the route. It is a new mode and system of regional cooperation. The expansion and deepening of the contents and principles of the Belt and Road, the documents issued by the Chinese government and the explanations made by Chinese leaders on important international occasions, as well as the platforms set up by the Chinese government (Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation and China International Import Expo, etc.) have promoted the process and effect of the Belt and Road initiative. However, it is an the initiative led by Chinese leaders and the subjects participating in it (state-owned enterprises and private enterprises) are very active, so there are some shortcomings such as lack of evaluation, hasty investment, environmental influence and imbalance of interests in the early projects of infrastructure, investment and trade, etc., which negatively affect the initiative to some extent. That is to say, the Belt and Road initiative focusing on regional economic cooperation has changed the strategic framework of the region involved in Belt and Road initiative, showing security tension and resulting in development trend and behaviors containing China. Therefore, it is essential that the Belt and Road initiative will have a positive development in the future so as to change other countries’ prejudices and positions and make them participate in the construction progress of Belt and Road. However, it is undeniable that the South China Sea issue related to the maritime silk road of the Belt and Road initiative is an important factor affecting the regional cooperation in the South China Sea and needs to be handled with efforts and care in order to promote the progress of Maritime Silk Road. Because the South China Sea region is a key area in the Maritime Silk Road initiative, it is particularly important to strengthen the internal and external cooperation in the South China Sea.