India has embarked on a unique path in its political and institutional development. India devised special arrangements for minorities when drafting its Constitution, following its independence in 1947. Attuned to the fact that India’s path is distinct from that of the West, this research focuses on the difficulties facing Indian Muslims. Muslims had to compromise on their claims of political rights in order to orient themselves in newly arising political circumstances. The debates around the reservation of seats for minorities in the Constituent Assembly revealed how Indian Muslims came to the conclusion to surrender any form of them, entrusting their protection to the actions of national leaders. Assurances that Jawaharlal Nehru gave might have facilitated Muslim politicians to reach such a conclusion. Yet, Nehru’s vision was limited in the face of conservatism within and outside the Indian National Congress.