HABITUS Volume 25
2021-03-20 発行

カント『遺稿』におけるphilosophia naturalisとscientia naturalisについて

Philosophia naturalis and scientia naturalis in Kant’s Opus postumum
In this article, I focus on Kant ’s Transition project and the concept of natural science in Kant ’s final, unpublished work, the so-called Opus postumum. The German word “Naturwissenschaft” (natural science) and the Latin word “philosophia naturalis” (natural philosophy) have been shown to be identical by previous studies. However, Kant uses another Latin word “scientia naturalis” (whose proper translation is “natural science”). I argue that natural philosophy certainly should be distinguished from natural science, which includes philosophy and mathematics. The mathematics that Newton systematizes in his Principia (The Mathematical Foundations of Natural Philosophy) is not the philosophy itself but only the tool for the philosophy. According to Kant, Newton must have another part of natural science, i.e. philosophical foundations. The aim of the Opus postumum is to establish a natural philosophy that includes Transition in order to connect the metaphysical foundations of natural science and physics. Natural philosophy as a philosophical aspect of natural science is completed through the physiological theory of the moving forces of matter, which is the science of Transition.