HABITUS Volume 23
2019-03-20 発行

生の哲学としてのシュタイナー教育思想 : ニーチェ思想との連続性

Steiner’s educational thought as a philosophy of life: Overcoming Nietzsche’s philosophy
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abstract
The current paper sought to clarify Rudolf Steiner’s educational thought as a “philosophy of life”, focusing on his understanding of Nietzsche’s thought. Nietzsche’s philosophy is generally regarded as the source of the concept of a “philosophy of life”. Nietzsche finds the possibility of true culture in the organic relationship between history, culture, and “life”. His “philosophy of life” arises from the concepts of destruction and creation symbolized by the ancient Greek god Dionysus. The “philosophy of life” concept supports the “superhuman” schema, in which human beings are unified into a cosmic whole, possessing the power of an underlying instinctual impulse through a physical body. In this sense, Nietzsche’s framework can be considered a concept of “innocence recovery” through entering into a personal dimension. Nietzsche argues that the “lightness” of the soul and body avoid external suppression. However, Nietzsche did not apply his own “philosophy of life” to education. In contrast, Steiner proposed that the promotion of “life” should not be limited to the Dionysus-like impulse that links only to “instinct” or “body”. Rather, Steiner argued that the direction of “deepness”, like Dionysus (in Nietzsche’s conception), is headed for “will / body”, whereas the direction of Apollo ascends to the “highs” of the ideal through “creative imagination”. Moreover, Steiner’s “philosophy of will” was developed into “the art of education (Erziehungskunst)”.