HABITUS Volume 21
2017-03-23 発行

シュタイナー教育思想の哲学的基盤(4) : 「精神」と「自由」の獲得に向けたヘーゲルの認識論(後半)

The Philosophical Foundation of Steiner's Educational Thought (4) :Hegel's Epistemology Directed to the Acquisition of 'Spirit' and 'Freedom' (Part 2)
This thesis aims to clarify the structure of Hegel's epistemology as the foundation of Steiner's educational thought. According to Steiner, Hegel is a "philosopher of Goethe's worldview", as he systematized Goethe's metamorphosis theory in philosophy. However, while Goethe limited his theory of metamorphosis to the elucidation of natural processes, Steiner and Hegel applied it to the whole universe including human spirit, and explained it as a transformation process of thought. Moreover, for Hegel and Steiner, the dynamic worldview connecting such ideals and reality also functions as a theory on liberty. In other words, we aim to rise from a "freedomless way of life" relying on external objects and low dimensional senses to a spiritual ideal world. However, Hegel's theory was not sufficient for Steiner. Steiner disagreed with some of Hegel's concepts as follows: "a view of the state" set as the highest form of morality beyond the freedom of individuals, the "absolute spirit" defined as guiding history beyond human activity, and "the abstractness of the theory" based only on philosophical maneuvering deviated from human concrete reality. Steiner considered the freedom of spirit to be attributed to a vivid individual personality, which differed from Hegel who believed that the ultimate principle is "absolute spirit" and the ideal community framework is "one racial and ethnic nation". Thus, for Steiner, Hegelian external and transcendental abstract provisions were unacceptable.