To live in harmony with wildlife, the cooperation of local residents is necessary and important. This study discusses the possibilities and problems related to residents’ participation in conservation activities for the giant salamander. A survey on resident awareness of the giant salamander and protection activities for this species was conducted in Toyosaka, Higashi-Hiroshima City in 2019. Prior to this survey, a questionnaire targeting local people was conducted in 2013. So it also considered the tendency of resident awareness to change beyond 2013, to 2019. As a result of the survey, and through protection and public awareness activities, awareness of the giant salamander has increased and a number of agreements for protection measures for this species have been made. However, this has not been enough to encourage local people to participate in protection activities. In the future, stronger public awareness campaigns are needed and a mechanism for developing the awareness of local people should be provided.