This article evaluates the “Return to the Country” social phenomenon in Japan in relation to lifestyle migration in other developed countries. A point in common is that urban residents have begun to acquire a positive image of rural areas, which had been negatively considered in the past. This finding prompts us to reconsider urban and rural relationships. One difference is that a theory of rural policy based on “Return to the Country” in Japan expects young lifestyle immigrants to constitute an energetic workforce that could help develop rural areas, whereas in other developed countries the rural areas expect lifestyle migrants to consume their products and services. Another difference is that research on migration to rural areas in Japan has largely focused on mutual interactions between the migrants and the local region, while research on lifestyle migration tends to focus on the perceptions and life histories of the migrants.