In this study, we explore the actual situation of music education from Mid-Meiji to World War Ⅱ, focusing on the Ritual Chant Chokugo-hōtō (the response to the Imperial Rescript on Education) using evidence from magazine articles. The following aspects are discussed: First, Chokugo-hōtō was proclaimed in a Public Notice, but educational sites tended to avoid it because of the difficulty in learning its western style. Second, several other versions of the song were composed, for some leading teachers believed that short and simple stereotyped melodies were adequate for elementary students. Third, teachers selected teaching materials and methods according to children’s musical development. However, the goal of “training faithful and promising Japanese people” in the early 1940s emphasized ritual education, distorted music education, and created conformity. The history of Chokugo-hōtō over 50 years suggests that significant steps have been taken in music education in modern Japan.