The objectives and significance of “Song and Drama” and “School Drama” drama education that began during the Taisho Era were compared. Hisashi Yamamoto and Kuniyoshi Obara created Song and Drama, which was performed during the school festival in at the Elementary School affiliated to Hiroshima Teachers College. Yamamoto called it Song and Drama, but Obara called it School Drama. On the one hand, this Song and Drama was developed under Yamamoto’s leadership. On the other hand, Obara was appointed to Seijo Elementary School and introduced the School Drama. “Song and Drama” and “School Drama” were considered to be different because they were conducted in different schools. About Song and Drama, I examine a way of thinking of Kumajiro Sato and Yamamot. Sato was the director of the Elementary School when Song and Drama started. About School Drama, I examine a way of thinking of Obara and Masataro Sawayanagi who founded Seijo Elementary School. Sato wanted to have a fun day with the teachers and families of students at the school during the school festival instead of just announcing the annual academic results, while Yamamoto emphasized showing children the Song and Drama class. He wanted to cultivate their artistry as well as their character. In contrast, Obara introduced the School Drama to the Seijo Elementary School to expand art education. As one of the main objectives of the School Drama, he wished to educate his students in the arts. Obara thought that not only the children, but also the people of Japan were undisciplined in the performing arts. Obara believed that society could be changed by the means of the theatrical arts.