This study investigated threes among the limited animation techniques, which is one characteristic of Japanese commercial animated fi lm. This technique of threes was used to reduce costs or attractiveness in Japanese commercial animated films, but it not sufficiently clear in contemporary examples of threes. A contemporary example of threes was analyzed in The Collection of Uchoten-kazoku Key Animation Art by Toshiyuki Inoue, which is a textbook collecting key frame art for animator training. The results showed that Japanese commercial animated film ranges widely from ones to fours, which is based on threes. The techniques described in the textbook are freely used in a wide range of Japanese commercial animated films. Although this technique began as an attempt to reduce costs. it became a creative characteristic of Japanese commercial animated films.