This study is concerned with BUNKYU NO KAIKAKU (the reform of military government in 1863) in CHOSHU HAN (Choshu feudal Clan). During this period, a number of SHOTAI, including KIHEITAI (the partisan) were established. The establishment of the organization of SHOTAI was focused as one part of the reform. More particularly, this study focused on the period which is from 1863, when the reform was started, to October in 1864, when the government of ZOKURONHA (the group of conservative) was established and released the order of dissolution of SHOTAI. Until 1863, there were two big changes in CHOSHU HAN. Firstly, in 1858, the military system began to shift to being westernized.
Secondly, the main policy was changed from the union of the imperial court and the Tokugawa shougunate into the exclusion of foreigners since 1862. In addition, in 1863, enforcement of the policy of the exclusion of foreigners stirred the consciousness of the people toward foreigners. As a result, CHOSHU HAN decided to change the traditional system into BUSHIDOTYAKUHOU (hometown defensive measure by the samurai). This study concludes that the traditional military system was completely changed, although BUSHIDOTYAKUHOU was not popular in public. In fact, the power of defense was reinforced in CHOSHU HAN, because SHOTAI and the regular armies were arranged. From other perspective, the tendency to KYOHANNITTITAISEI (Solidarity in the feudal clan) which was completed in KEIOU NO GUNSEIKAIKAKU (the reform of military government since 1865) was formed during this period. For future studies, I will focus on the relationship between SHOTAI and the government of CHOSHU HAN, because the background of the establishment of the military system was made cleared.