The purpose of this study is to examine the music education in Italy regarding changes of programs. As a result, it was found that the music education from the birth of a “song" to the present is divided into the following four periods: 1) a period when music was regarded as a means to accomplish the political purpose of fostering the spirit of patriotism, 2) a period when cognitive contents of music were emphasized, 3) a period when music was regarded as a means of spiritual education, and 4) a period when music was regarded as a communication tool closely related to daily life. In Italy, music education has been greatly influenced by the political matters or trends in the education. Furthermore, the purpose of music education in Italy has been education through music, rather than only teaching music. In other words, music is regarded as a means of education.