As the results of PISA2006 (OECD, 2007) and other international assessments have been realized, there are concerns in Japan that although students show the high score of scientific literacy their interests in science were low. In this study, we explore the structure of attitudes towards science and scientific literacy based on the comparison of following five countries: Australia, Canada, Finland, Japan and New Zealand. The model of this analysis includes the six constructs (f 1:ENJ, f 2:GEV, f 3:PEV, f 4:FUM, f 5:GEI, f 6:INM) of attitudes towards science and scientific literacy score (f 7:SCL) with multiple group method. As the results of this analysis, the direct effects of each construct and total effects on f 7:SCL show the similarity between Australia, Canada and New Zealand. On the other hand, the total effect of f 5:GEI on f 7:SCL in Japan is bigger than other countries' one.