Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. Part. II, Arts and science education Issue 57
2008-12-26 発行

日中の学校体育における学習形態に関する比較研究 : 組織的側面に着目して

A Comparative Study on the Learning Form of Physical Education at Schools in Japan and China : From the perspective of organization
Zhang, Hongyan
By horizontally and vertically describing the change and tendency of the learning form observed recently in Japan and China, this study aims to examine that to what direction the learning form of physical education should be developed. Moreover, through the comparison between Japan and China, this study also aims at the implications which may benefit the reform in physical education at schools in China, particularly the substantiality and improvement of learning form. The following results are clarified. (1)Due to the influence by the changes of value, paradigm and subject (learning) content of school physical education, there have appeared a variety of learning form of physical education at schools both in Japan and China. (2) The concept of learning form itself has not been arranged well. The necessity for reconstruction of its classification and content is indispensable. (3) In China, class form as a learning form has a history of over 100 years, which is still strongly influential. Voluntary learning, cooperative learning, and exploratory learning, which are proposed in "Course Standard", are still at the developing stage. (4) The group study form of Japan is similar with that mentioned in Chinese "Course Standard", thus can be beneficial reference or inspiration for Chinese learning form. However, practical examination is needed because countries differentiate with education purpose and the condition of students. (5) Learning forms do not independently exist, but are interwoven with each other in terms of content and method. In addition, each direction of a learning form has its merits and demerits, which might affect a new learning form.
learning form
Japan-China comparison
group learning
voluntary learning / Cooperative learning / exploratory learning