The aim of this paper is to highlight the current issues that impact on mathematics education in Japan. To do so, first as a background we outline the educational framework and the brief history of revising school mathematics curriculum from 1947 to 2007 for understanding Japanese education system. Second we give the information about pre-service and in-service mathematics teacher training. Then, we highlight some current issues impacting on Japanese mathematics education from three points of view. The issues on mathematics curriculum are identified in terms of the standard school hours and mathematical contents to be learned for primary and lower secondary school. The issues on children are identified by using a result of the international and national surveys on mathematics education. The issues on mathematics teachers are identified in light of the change of policy and situation concerning mathematics teacher training in Japan.