The aim of this study is to develop a Strategic Competence Test for Efl learners and report some noteworthy features about the knowledge and awareness of communication strategies of Japanese college students. Communicative competence consists of several major sub-components. One of these, namely ‘strategic competence', used to get little attention in foreign language classrooms. However, the importance of developing the strategic competence of learners has become increasingly recognized by researchers, practitioners, curriculum designers, and textbook writers. This study presents a brief theoretical background for designing a Strategic Competence Test, and gives examples of test items for assessing the strategic competence of students based on the ideas of Celce-Murcia et al. (1995). The test was conducted with 245 Japanese college students and their data was examined. The major findings were as follows: (1) The Japanese college students found it difficult to figure out the situations involving the use of ‘avoidance strategies' and ‘checking the interlocutor's comprehension'; (2) they did not have much difficulty imagining the situations involving ‘requesting strategies when non-understanding', ‘achievement or compensation strategies', and ‘appeals for help'; (3) the higher score group performed better on test-items involving ‘checking the interlocutor's comprehension', and clarifying the information positively, such as ‘self- rephrasing' and ‘confirmation strategies'.