There are numerous comparative studies of Natsume Sōseki (1867～1916) and Luxun (1881～1936) in Japan. At the same time in Korea, comparative studies of Lee Kwang-Su (1892～?) and Luxun are made frequently. But it is difficult to find a comparative study of Natsume Soseki and Lee Kwang-Su in Korea or Japan. In spite of the differences in modernization in their countries, Japan, Korea and China, respectively, Natsume Soseki, Lee Kwang-Su and Luxun have many common features. They were all representative writers who suffered because of modernization. For that reason, a comparative study between Natsume Soseki and Lee Kwang-Su is essential. This study takes into consideration the progress of civilization in the two countries, Japan and Korea, through "Sanshirō" (1908) by Natsume Sōseki, and "Mu-Jeong" (1917) by Lee Kwang-Su. Natsume Sōseki described the modernization of Japan through the eye of an erratic young man, Sanshirō in "Sanshirō"and Lee Kwang-Su depicted the modernization of Korea through the eye of Lee Hyung-Sik, who wavers between tradition and modernization in "Mu-Jeong". It can be said that the modernization and civilization of these two countries are described by the life of the young main character in both works. Both writers, as intellectuals, were afflicted in the conflict between tradition and modernization in their countries. The two countries had different historical backgrounds and took different paths to modernization. At that time Korea was a colony of Japan and Japan took the path of imperialism. This study analyzes the differences of modernization between Japan and Korea as reflected in "Sanshirō"and "Mu-Jeong".