According to the School Education Act, elementary school music education is provided to facilitate children’s happiness and good health. However, a report by the Central Council for Education (2016.11) suggested further improvement of learning about the functions of sounds and music in society to help children build a relationship between sounds and musics. Therefore, the new elementary school curriculum guidelines issued in 2017 included new details about the competence in understanding the role of sounds and musics in our society in the overall music objectives. This study explores the relationship between school music education and folk music culture by referring to historical details and folklore norms. The results suggest that the ways of thinking in folk music culture will provide clues for understanding what music means in society. These essential questions, which approach disciplinary structures, will lead to a curriculum that enables students to approach big concepts in music. Thus, folklore can be an essential basis for music education in schools because the introduction of folk music culture as learning materials instead of teaching materials will help students create a deeper comprehension of the role of musics in society.