Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. Part 1, Learning and curriculum development Issue 51
2003-03-28 発行

児童の作文評価をめぐる諸問題 : 観点別到達度評価に関わる史的・測定論的考察

Problems in the evaluation of children's compositions in Japanese schools : Historical and theoretical considerations of criterion-referenced evaluation
Kajii, Yoshiaki
This paper discusses the changes of the objectives of the Japanese language education and Japanese writing in the Japanese National Standards after World War II and researches that examined the validity and reliability of the criteria for evaluating writing in the fields of Japanese language education and educational psychology. Results of the review show that objectives of the Japanese language education and Japanese writing have been changing. In the 1947-1968 Japanese National Standards, the objectives were activity-based, that is, developing children's speaking, listening, writing and reading skills. In 1977-1989, however, these objectives have changed to ability-based, focusing on the children's ability to express and understand. And in the New Japanese National Standards (1998), the objectives changed again to activity-based. Likewise, the system for evaluating children's compositions have also changed, that is, the criteria used for each grade level have been integrated, resulting in three sets of criteria; one each for low grade (Grades 1 and 2), middle grade (Grades 3 and 4), and high grade (Grades 5 and 6). Thus, teachers need to use the criteria more carefully, taking into consideration the actual grade level of the children. In terms of research, there is a need to clearly define the evaluation items and for the teachers to experience the use of these items in order to improve the validity and reliability of the evaluation of compositions.
Japanese National Standards
transition of Japanese writing objectives
criterionreferenced evaluation
validity and reliability of criteria for evaluating writing
use of criteria for evaluation