Since 2012, the Research Institute of Early Childhood Education, Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, has conducted cooperative research with the Institute of Early Childhood Education, Beijing Normal University, under the theme “Support of the university in the professionalism of ECEC teachers.” In January 2019, five doctoral students from Hiroshima University visited Beijing Normal University for a joint forum through the cooperation of Prof. Xiumin Hong and Associate Prof. Minyi Li. In the forum, the keynote speaker from the Japanese side, Prof. Nanakida (Hiroshima University) presented a paper entitled “The issue of the transition from ECEC to the primary school in Japan,” and from the Chinese side, Prof. Xiumin Hong gave a speech entitled “Challenges and reflections on the development of Chinese early childhood education under the universal two-child policy.” Next, five doctoral students from the Graduate School of Hiroshima University reported the findings of their research, and five graduate students from Beijing Normal University of China also delivered presentations. Although the cultural situations relating to ECEC and childcare differed, the forum provided an opportunity to reaffirm the importance of early childhood education and childcare in modern society. It was noteworthy that a lot of studies examined the background of the universal twochild policy in China with a view to solving various problems such as the development of ECEC in China, sibling relationships at home, companion relationships in the nursery, the needs of infant childcare, and the need for child-rearing support. The discussions that took place provided valuable stimulation for the graduate students from both countries.