JFacFishAnim_6_297.pdf 2.01 MB
Chore labour study in relation to dairy cattle management systems
乳牛の飼育管理が，放し飼い方式と繋ぎ飼い方式で行なわれる2つの乳牛舎で，飼育管理作業を検討する目的で， 1964年12 月から1965 年1月の間lこ作業時間と作業動線を調査研究した. その結果を要約すると次の通りである.
1) この時期には１日１ 頭当りの作業時間は，放し飼い方式40.3分，繋き飼い方式35.0 分であった
2) 放し飼い方式と繋ぎ飼い方式における搾乳，給飼，敷わら交換と清掃のそれぞれの作業時聞は，21. 7分と20.6分， 5.8分と5. 7分， 8.5分と5.0分であった.
4) 放し飼い方式と繋ぎ飼い方式の作業動線を比較すると1日1頭当り489m と402m で放し飼い方式が多かった.搾乳作業の時間と動線は1頭1回当り10.9分と83m，10.3分と12mであった.
5) 敷わら交換および清掃作業は，この作業の反覆回数と作業面積から延面積で比較すると， どちらの管理方式でも1000m2当り約100 分の時間と約1900mの動線を必要とした.
6) 以上2つの管理方式を比較して，必ずしも放し飼い方式が省力的であるとはいえなかった. その原因は放し飼い方式としては飼育頭数が少なくないこと，管理作業の体系が充分確立されていなかったことによるものであろう.
Although the labour-saving problem has been recognized as a key point m dairy farming in Japan, chore labour was studied by seldom investigators. The present research was projected to bring out the possible labour saving for or against loose housing free barn to stanchion stall barn.
In each trial the time required in milking, feeding, bedding cleaning and others was recorded by 2-3 observers with their stop-watch, and at the same time dairy chore routes were traced by them in section papers, and subsequently measured in meters by kilvimeter (a sort of range finder).
Loose housing free barn of Hiroshima University Farm had been keeping 20 cows and heifers under the management of 2 mens, and 10 heads had been milked in the parlor equipped with elevated tandem stall and pipe line milker.
The others stanchion stall barn was one m Nanatsukahara Breeding Farm of Hiroshima Prefecture. In the barn, 31 cows had been under the management of 1-6 mens, and milked with two bucket type milkers. Observations were conducted for five days during the winter of 1964-1965 in the loose housing, and in succession three days during the winter of 1965 in stanchion barn.
Milking time, feeding time, bedding and cleaning time required in the loose housing vs. m the stancion barn averaged in 21.7 min. vs. 20.6 min., 5.8 min. vs. 5.7 min., 8.5 vs. 5.0 min. per cow per day, respectively.
Loose housing dairy chore time averaged for 40.3 min. per cow per day against 35.0 mm. m the stanchion barn. Over the last decade of years, one has often heard it said by many investigators that labour-saving is an advantage in loose housing, and especially feeding requires less time in loose housing.
In U. S. A., however, head-level in loose housing is normally over 30-50 cows, and it is pointed out that labour time in some element works will be unvariable to some extent following with head-level of 10-30 cows.
Accordingly, element works in milking and feeding were discussed, and if head-level would be larger than 20 cows, it could be that milking time in the loose housing would be required only to half per cow per day. Obviously, loose housing could save labour in chore with front loader. Chore routes in the loose housing compared with the stanchion barn were in average in 489 m vs. 402 m per cow per days, and 10.9 min-- 83 m, vs. 10.3 min- 72 m per cow per one time from the measure· ment of time-travel method. It is interesting to say that in handling of bedding and cleaning of barn labour requirements are calculated as 100 min. --- 1900 m per 1000 m 2 alike in the two systems.
Journal of the Faculty of Fisheries and Animal Husbandry, Hiroshima University
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Departmental Bulletin Paper
Departmental Bulletin Papers
Graduate School of Biosphere Science
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