JpnJPhysEduc_55-2_499.pdf 411 KB
The effect of explicit and implicit perceptual training on anticipation of a pitched ball
Sports and physical training
The first purpose of this study was to examine the influences of explicit and implicit perceptual training on the reaction-time and accuracy of pitched ball anticipation. The second purpose was to examine transfer effects to a new pitcher. Twenty-eight varsity baseball players participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to an explicit instruction group, an implicit instruction group, or a control group. Forty-eight test trials and 72 perceptual training trials were administered on the first day of the experiment. On the second day, 48 test trials followed by 144 perceptual training trials were administered. The third day consisted of 48 test trials. The test consisted of evaluation of the pitch location, pitch type, and both pitch location and type. Anticipatory cues were introduced to the explicit instruction group only. Participants in the implicit instruction group were instructed to react intuitively. Participants in the control group performed only test trials.
The results indicated that the level of awareness of anticipatory cues was significantly lower in the implicit instruction group than in the explicit instruction and control groups, whereas that in the explicit instruction group was significantly higher than in the control group. These findings suggest that instructions demanding an intuitive reaction inhibited awareness of anticipatory cues. Moreover, in both the explicit and implicit instruction groups, the speed of anticipation for pitch location and for both pitch location and pitch type were improved significantly by the 72 perceptual training trials, whereas no such change was observed in the accuracy of anticipation. No improvement in speed or accuracy was observed in the control group. These results indicate that explicit and implicit perceptual training yields similar improvements of anticipatory skills and different levels of awareness about anticipatory cues. No transfer effects were observed in this study.
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