中世イングランド司教の統治戦略 : ハーバート=ロシンガを中心に
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The Governing Strategies of Medieval English Bishop: The Case of Herbert Losinga
This paper clarifies the characteristics of the bishops' strategies to govern their dioceses in Medieval England. Especially, the case of Bishop Herbert Losinga (1091-1119) of East Anglia will be examined. As the Bishop of East Anglia (Norfolk and Suffolk), he took the policy to regard Norfolk as more important part. What was his reason for this and his strategy?
Herbert Losinga was appointed the Bishop of East Anglia (i.e. Thetford, then the see) by King William II (1087-1100). He was said to have gained his post by committing simony (payment of money). The contemporary Church Reform Movement forced him to visit the Roman Papacy to do penance to be invested by Roman Pope Urban II (1088-99). Herbert supported the King in his struggle with Archbishop Anselm (1093-1109) of Canterbury over the Church Reform.
As his former predecessor Bishop Herfast did, Herbert tried his best to establish his new cathedral at the traditional Abbey of Bury St Edmunds. But he was not successful in his efforts. After his failure, he took the strategies to establish his rule and to show his prestige especially in the Northern half of East Anglia with its center at Norwich. His actions were understandable in the context of his rivalry with the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds and its strenuous Abbot Baldwin. He moved the episcopal see from Thetford to Norwich in 1094/95. The bishop started building the Cathedral Church and Benedictine Priory there. Norwich was economically a prosperous town already in late Saxon period and it became also a political center with the royal castle to govern the region of East Anglia. Bishop Herbert govern the area with the cooperation of Sheriff Roger Bigod.
To govern his diocese of East Anglia (i.e. Norwich), he took the strategies to build the Priory cells (religious houses and churches). Especially, the establishments of those cells of Norwich Cathedral Priory in Norfolk fostered the economic and social developments of the towns with new religious houses. Thus, Bishop's Lynn became an important town for maritime transportation and Yarmouth provided Norwich Priory with considerable economic profits from fishery and naval trade.
As Bishop as well as Abbot, Herbert Losinga took his strategies to build hospitals, grammar school and religious houses in Norwich and East Anglia to show his pastoral leadership. This was in a point different from Abbot Baldwin of Bury St Edmunds. It was, after all, Bishop's governing strategy.