大学教育におけるeラーニングの展開 : 導入の先に目指すもの
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Development of e-learning in Higher Education: The Aim Beyond Introduction
The use of e-learning has been expanding in higher education. However, there are some issues to be solved to facilitate and exploit e-learning more effectively. This article overviews the current use of e-learning in higher education in Japan, identifies the issues, and discusses desirable future goals of e-learning.
The history of e-learning has two different lineages, namely, lecture-centered and material-centered. Lecture-centered e-learning has been developed on the notion that acknowledges lectures, while materialcentered e-learning has its origin in the dissatisfaction with lectures.
In Japanese universities basic facilities using information and communication technology (ICT), such as e-mail system, syllabus distribution, or electronic course registration, have been introduced relatively well. However, the introduction rate of ICT facilities such as video recording system for lectures, public sharing of lecture videos, or preparation of digital textbooks, which are directly utilized for education, remains low. Furthermore, the utilization rate of ICT tools in lectures is quite low except for the use of Power Point slides.
There are some issues in the use of e-learning. Delivery of lecture material is one of the basic functions of learning management system (LMS). However, when the materials are electronically delivered using LMS, there is concern that the students may violate copyright law if they clip the part or modify the materials. One solution is to use the specifically designed electronic material delivery system with a function of digital rights management. Another issue is the labor of teachers in preparation of e-learning materials. Diversion of existing materials using specifically designed tools can be a solution.
One of the future aspects of e-learning may be“ tailor-made education” in which the education objectives and contents are individually set for each student depending on his/her volition toward learning, ability, and the level of knowledge. To realize tailor-made education, entire innovation of the university education, including the setting of graded objectives and optional objectives, branching the learning contents, and frequent, detailed formative evaluations, not only the introduction of e-learning, is necessary. However, e-learning is expected to play an important role in tailor-made education.
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