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別タイトル
Industrialization and Underdevelopment Problems in a Backward Mountain State of India : Focusing on Uttarakhand State <Article>
著者
田中 健作
ティワリ P.C.
キーワード
山岳地域
工業化
工業団地
低開発問題
ウッタラカンド
インド
mountain region
industrialization
industrial estate
underdevelopment problem
Uttarakhand
India
NDC
社会
抄録
本稿では, インドの低開発州における経済発展の特質と問題点を, 工業化を軸に検討した。対象地域はインド北部のヒマラヤ山岳地域に位置するウッタラカンド州であり, 特にナイニータール県にあるビムタール工業団地に焦点を当てた。ウッタラカンド地方では, 経済発展の遅れにより域外での就業が多く, それゆえ, 地元雇用に資する工業化に早くから大きな期待がかけられてきた。そのような工業開発を遂行した代表的事例がビムタール工業団地である。1980年代にUP州政府のバックアップのもとで工業化が強力に推進されたが, 経済自由化後の1990年代には工場の閉鎖が相次ぎこの工業開発は失敗に終わった。現在のビムタール工業団地は少数の工場が存するものの, ナイニータールからの都市機能の移転により教育機関や政府機関などが多数立地する複合的な都市開発地域に変貌しつつある。他方, ウッタラカンド州の山麓の平地部では, 2000年代後半から中央政府の産業政策に依拠した大規模な工業化が新たに進行している。それゆえ, 今後はウッタラカンド州内の地域格差拡大が懸念される。本稿の分析からは, 山岳地域の開発には, 工業開発だけでなく, 都市開発, 観光開発, 農業開発を含めたより総合的な視点や持続可能性の検討が必要といえよう。
抄録(英)
This paper examines the characteristics and problems of economic development in an underdeveloped state, focusing on industrial development. The study area, Uttarakhand State, is located in the Himalayan mountain region and was created in 2000, separating itself from Uttar Pradesh State. The state has experienced underdevelopment and formed a "Money Order Economy" that depends on the money sent from migrant workers. Therefore, the local people strongly desire regional development based on industrialization and greater employment opportunities. For achieving such industrial development, the UP state government developed the Bhimtal Industrial Estate in the 1980s. We selected the estate as a main study area, in which an intensive survey for factories and other institutions was conducted in 2009.

The Bhimtal Industrial Estate in the 1980s attracted special attention as a successful case of regional development in mountainous regions because the UP state government succeeded in attracting electronics industries, which set up factories for television sets and related products. As a result, the industrial cluster created increased job opportunities for the local people. However, in the 1990s, most of the factories located in the estate were closed due to the intensified competition that started in India under economic liberalization.

Our survey in 2009 revealed that the characteristics of the Bhimtal Industrial Estate dramatically changed. Factories in operation consist of small scale businesses in a variety of industries. They have few mutual business transactions in the estate. Thus, the industrial estate has not been successful in making an integrated industrial cluster, though we should pay attention to some factories and flower farms that highly evaluated the location factor of the natural environment and local resources in mountainous regions. The estate is in the process of change from an industrial area to an urban complex. Some administrative bodies shifted from Nainital to Bhimtal to get sufficient space, and educational institutions were also established in that area.

This case highlights an example of industrial development in India's underdeveloped region. In the planned economy period, the state government implemented a strong policy measure for industrializing backward areas. However, under the liberalized economy, the state had great difficulty in attracting industries to such areas. In Uttarakhand State, large scale industrialization is now going on in the plain region. This means increasing regional disparities between citizens living in the plains and the mountains in the same state. We need to chart the future economic development scenario of mountainous regions with a broad perspective, including sustainability.
掲載誌名
広島大学現代インド研究 : 空間と社会
1号
開始ページ
27
終了ページ
36
出版年月日
2011-03-22
出版者
広島大学現代インド研究センター
ISSN
2185-8721
SelfDOI
言語
日本語
NII資源タイプ
紀要論文
広大資料タイプ
学内刊行物(紀要等)
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Copyright (c) 2011 広島大学現代インド研究センター
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