初期社会科の統合理念とカリキュラムの実像 : 『学習指導要領社会科編I(試案)』の編成の特質
JpnJEducRes_68-2_192.pdf 1.22 MB
The Idea and the Reality of the Integrated Social Studies Curriculum Just After the End of World War II in Japan : About Characteristics of "Course of Study for the Social Studies I (Tentative)", 1947
Education Reform After World War II in Japan
'abandoning the so-called lines of the sciences'
Virginia State Curriculum Program
The purpose of this paper is to clear up the idea and the reality of the integrated social studies curriculum, namely, "Course of Study for the Social Studies I (Tentative)" issued just after the end of World War II in Japan in 1947.
The idea of integration in this Course of Study is well brought out in the phrase 'abandoning the socalled lines of the sciences'. Until now, this phrase has been given the interpretation that social studies was not a subject based on lines of social sciences but a subject centering about children's problems in their actual lives, and that social studies aim to enrich their social experiences.
However, this interpretation can not develop a theory to make an integrated social studies curriculum; it can only suggest a theory for teaching and learning social studies.
Therefore, I propose the following four new interpretations as theories for curriculum construction about the phrase 'abandoning the so-called lines of the sciences'.
"Course of Study for the Social Studies I (Tentative)" was constructed based on the Virginia State Curriculum Program revised in 1943. This Virginia Program was a core curriculum that adopted a new scope of framework named "major functions of social life", which was led from the cultural anthropology. It means that "Course of Study for the Social Studies I (Tentative)" was constructed based on a line of cultural anthropology. But Mr.Takayasu Shigematsu, Kaoru Ueda, Torashiro Ozaki and Takashi Shiota, members of the elementary social studies committee at the Ministry of Education in Japan, did not seem to have recognized the fact. For that reason, I interpreted the phrase 'abandoning the so-called lines of the sciences' to mean that the social studies curriculum was based on a different, separate line of science which had not received academic citizenship at that time.
Mr. Shigematsu (chairman) and three other members of the elementary social studies committee organized a curriculum framework of "Course of Study for the Social Studies I (Tentative)" by making a partial revision of the Virginia Program to fit into the Japanese style. At that time, Mr.Shigematsu insisted on two points according to his sense of times. Firstly, we must add some activities on the units that can teach about manners and the blessing of health to pupils at the lower grades. Secondly, we must make some units to teach about governmental control and international friendship.
Mr. Ueda interpreted the idea of the integrated social studies as a theory to teach about scientific mind and methodology. This was because he could not help but criticize prewar education where a great deal of academic knowledge and specified ideology were taught as truths. In this paper, I called his interpretation "methodological approach".
On the other hand, Mr. Ozaki and Mr. Shiota interpreted the idea of the integrated social studies as a theory to teach scientific methodology of studying history or geography. This is because they understood the phrase 'abandoning the so-called lines of the sciences' in a sense that we should not teach around the line of scientific knowledge. In this paper, I referred to their interpretation as "specific scientific approach".