朱熹晩年の朱門における正統意識の萌芽 : 呂祖儉と朱熹・朱門の講學を事例として
The Generation of the Conception of Orthodoxy within the School of Zhu Xi 朱熹 during His Latter Years : Lü Zu-jian 呂祖儉 and the Lectures of Zhu Xi and His Disciples
In this article I consider the lectures on the Zhong-yong 中庸 and the Meng-zi 孟子 based on the correspondence between Zhu Xi 朱熹 and Lü Zu-jian 呂祖倹, the younger brother of Lü Zu-qian 呂祖謙, and the criticism of the lectures by the followers of Zhu Xi such as Wan Ren-jie 萬人傑 and Wu Bi-da 呉必大, as well as Zhu Xi himself.
With the spread of a conventional understanding of Zhu Xi such as that seen in the Si shu ji zhu 四書集注, there were created the circumstances under which those who endorsed this view and those who held different interpretations could exchange views with Zhu Xi on the basis of this prevalent understanding. As matters progressed, there appeared thinkers who, deeply immersed in this conventionalized understanding of Zhu Xi, attempted to copy the master and replicate this thought. The impetus for replication arose in the minds of these various individuals. At the same time, one also witnesses the phenomenon of Zhu Xi promoting the formation of this ardor by approving the comments of his disciples in the give and take of arguments. The consciousness of carrying on the authentic teaching of the master, which included an emotional component, was thus created, and thereby a sense of the orthodox succession of Zhu Xi's views and their manifest glory first blossomed.
The exchanges between Lu Zu-jian and Zhu Xi display the character of being an argument regarding the earlier conventional understanding of the teachings of Zhu Xi. The criticism of those like Wan Ren-jie can be characterized as being critically concerned with those who later attempted to replicate the teachings of Zhu Xi and his own secondary arguments. Here one can see an aspect of the birthplace of the consciousness of the orthodox succession of the teachings of Zhu Xi. This also demonstrates that the groundwork was being laid for the reproduction of Zhu Xi's teachings following the master's death.