Distributional Change and Epidemic Introgression in Overlapping Areas of Japanese Pond Frog Species Over 30 Years
zsj.29.351.pdf 1.12 MB
Pelophylax nigromaculatus, P. porosus porosus, and P. p. brevipoda are three pond frog species distributed in Japan. Their distributions overlap at two basins in central Japan (P. nigromaculatus and P. p. porosus in the Matsumoto basin, and P. nigromaculatus and P. p. brevipoda in the Ina basin), and hybrid descendants have been found in these areas. To clarify the distribution areas and hybrid zones of the frogs, and to understand the mode of introgressive hybridization and its impact on the frog populations, we conducted exhaustive sampling at each basin and performed allozyme and mtDNA analyses of 233 individuals. Analysis using genetic markers clearly detected nine F1 hybrids and 94 hybrid descendants of P. nigromaculatus and P. porosus from the overlapping areas of both basins. Allozyme and mtDNA data suggest directional hybridization between female P. p. porosus and male P. nigromaculatus in the Matsumoto basin. Over the past 30 years, the distribution of P. p. porosus has been narrowed and fragmented by the invasion of P. nigromaculatus, seemingly because of directional hybridization in the Matsumoto basin. In the Ina basin, the “pure” P. p. brevipoda (n = 8) population was extremely reduced by gene introgression from P. nigromaculatus, yet its distribution was barely changed compared to the Matsumoto basin. Consequently, this study shows that P. porosus populations are threatened by interspecific hybridization with P. nigromaculatus, and that introgressive hybridization damaged P. porosus populations by different means in each basin.
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(c) 2012 Zoological Society of Japan
Graduate School of Science