ヒトの歩行 : 歩幅, 歩調, 速度およびエネルギー代謝の観点から <総説>
JAnthropSocNippon_98_385.pdf 1.46 MB
Human Walking : With Reference to Step Length, Cadence, Speed and Energy Expenditure
歩行研究は日常生活における自然歩行と実験室内で実施される実験歩行に分けることができる。これらの方法から得られた結果は同じ速度であっても一致しないものがあり, またそれぞれの実験条件でしか観察できない内容もある。そこで, 本稿では両者の結果を示すことにより, その違いを明確にしながらヒトの歩行の特徴を論じた。歩行の特徴は歩幅および歩調を資料として速度, 性, 年齢および民族別に考察した。またこれに加えて, 自然歩行では時代, 履物および地域差についても論じた。実験歩行については床歩行とトレッドミル歩行に分け, 歩行時の上肢動作およびエネルギー代謝量についても言及した。
In this review, the characteristics of human walking were discussed with special reference to step length, cadence, speed and energy expenditure. For this purpose, the natural walking was distinguished from experimental walking including floor and treadmill walking in a laboratory. The conclusions obtained from this review were as follows.
1) Step lengths in natural and floor walking tend to be greater compared with those obtained during treadmill walking.
2) The older people walk with shorter step length, slower cadence, longer walking cycle and slower speed as compared with the younger people.
3) The sex differences which were consistently found both in natural and experimental walking were higher speed walking with longer step length in men than in women.
4) There exist the regional difference in walking speed and the ethnical difference in gait pattern. In Japan, the people in Osaka and Tokyo seem to walk faster than those in other cities investigated.
5) In natural walking, Japanese walk with shorter step length, higher cadence and faster speed than American. In treadmill walking, the step length of Japanese was shorter than Caucasian by about 5cm at any speed.
6) The degree of shoulder extension increases with the walking speed. At the speeds of 120 and 130 m/min, the tall subjects showed the least excursion of shoulder extension.
7) For the prediction of the metabolic costs during experimental walking, an equation was presented from the literature (PANDOLF er al., 1977) which took account of body weight, exernal load carried, walking speed, nature of terrain and grade.
8) It is estimated that the energy cost of overcoming wind resistance in walking is about 104000f total energy cost at the wind velocity of 5m/sec and 35 0x1.02938bfffa01p+147t 8m/sec.
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